BoxTehran, Iran. The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch Acari: Tetranychidae is a cosmopolitan agricultural pest, feeding on more than plant species, of which more than have economic value Bolland et al. Predatory mites in the family of Phytoseiidae have gained much attention, because of their important role in biological control of mite and insect pests, hence, there are intensive studies about the distribution, biology, ecology and behavioral characteristics of mites of this family Fathipour and Maleknia, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot is one of the most important phytoseiid species that has been known as a very efficient biological control agent of several species of spider mites Helle and Sabelis, ; Alipour et al.
According to McMurtry et al. Owing to the ability of P. The performance of a predator can be affected by several attributes, two of which are the functional response and predation rate Holling, ; Skalski and Gilliam, There are many studies about functional response of P. Therefore, this study aimed to reveal the searching efficiency and predation capacity of P.
Knowledge on lifetime predation capacity of a predator can help to promote its usage in biocontrol programs.
On the other hand, distinguishing which stage of P. Materials and methods Prey culture The specimens of T. Predator source and rearing A colony of P.
The edges of the plastic sheet were covered with moist tissue paper to prevent predators from escaping Walzer and Schausberger, Cucumber leaves infested with T. In order to obtain predators of the same age, approximately gravid female P.
The arena consisted of a piece of cucumber leaf with abundant T. The predatory mites were allowed to lay eggs for 12 hours, then gravid females were removed from the leaf discs. The leaf discs with the P. The experimental units were monitored until the eggs hatched. Protonymphs, deutonymphs, and different ages of adult females were used for the experiments. Functional response The experimental unit was a 3.
Seven densities 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and of T. In order to make experimental units similar to natural conditions i. The deposited eggs were counted, and in cases of low or high number of eggs in each density, eggs were added or removed. The predatory mites from the same-aged colony in ages 4 protonymph5 deutonymph6, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 days were transferred to the leaf discs with a thin paintbrush.
The sex of nymphal stages was not clear, therefore mixed sexes were considered but for the adults, only females were used in the experiments. To prevent escape of predatory mites, the 3. Each treatment was replicated 10 times. After 24 h the number of intact eggs remaining was counted. The data on functional response were analyzed in two steps Juliano, The sign of the P 1 from equation 1 can be used to distinguish the type of the functional response curve.
After determining the type of functional response, the next step is to estimate the handling time and attack rate coefficients. In this study, we used an explicit deterministic model for type II functional response Royama, ; Rogers, :. An iterative nonlinear least-squares regression was used to fit the random predator equation to data so as to estimate the parameters describing the type II response.
Likewise, a non-linear least squares regression procedure was used to fit the related equation to data producing a type III response.
Results The functional response of P. Comparison of functional response curves revealed profound differences between predators of different ages. The results of logistic regression analyses showed that at the age of 15, 35 and 40days, the predation rate of T.BoxTehran, Iran. Management of TSSM is extremely difficult, and a large quantity of pesticides are used for this purpose. Chemical pesticides can be harmful to humans, environment and nontarget organisms and may cause secondary pest outbreaks and resistance Debach, In contrast, biocontrol agents, including phytoseiid mites, are generally considered safe to humans and the environment and generally have no effect on other nontarget organisms Fathipour and Maleknia, In biological control programs accompanied with augmentation of biocontrol agents, providing the necessary facilities for mass production of these agents is the crucial subject.
Mass production and release of biocontrol agents is the foundation of augmentative biological control King, The necessity of maintaining three trophic levels in natural rearing systems may cause problems of discontinuity, and the high costs for rearing facilities and labor can lead to high market prices for the predator De Clercq et al.
The availability of effective artificial diet will reduce the number of trophic levels, and the use of it may assist in making the mass production of a biocontrol agent more cost effective Grenier and De Clercq, Predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae are economically important predators of phytophagous mites and insects in greenhouse crops Greco et al.
Several species of phytoseiid predatory mites rank among the most important biocontrol agents used in augmentative biological control against various pests Cock et al. Neoseiulus californicus McGregor Acari: Phytoseiidaeone of the most important biocontrol agent of TSSM, can provide excellent biological control of spider mites over wide range of climatic and management conditions Oatman et al. The possibility of mass rearing of N.
In the mass production of different generalist phytoseiid mites, astigmatid mites are being used as primary food sources instead of natural prey Bolckmans and van Houten, However, this rearing system is often time-consuming and allergy problems can be generated using astigmatid mites Fernandez-Caldas et al.
The availability of effective artificial diet may assist in making the mass production of a phytoseiid mite more cost effective. Reducing costs of production could decrease the market price of phytoseiid mites and increase the number of growers using biological solutions for pest management. To create an artificial diet for an arthropod, the feeding mechanism and its digestive system as well as its nutritional requirements and the biochemical composition of its natural food should be known.
However, much of the successes with artificial diets were based on a simple trial-and-error approach. According to the purity of components, artificial diets can be classified into three types: 1 holidic diet, is one of which the chemical structure of all ingredients is known; 2 meridic diet, has a holidic basis but at least one of the components has an unknown structure or purity; 3 oligidic diet, in which a few of the components are known chemically, and contain unpurified organic components, mainly raw organic materials Dougherty, In addition, another classification according to the presence or absence of insect components hemolymph, tissue homogenates or extracts, egg juice has been proposed by Grenier and De Clercq Whereas several artificial diets have been developed for predatory insects, relatively few attempts have been made for rearing of predatory mites on artificial diets McMurtry and Scriven, ; Kennett and Hamai, ; Ogawa and Osakabe, ; Nguyen et al.
Therfore, the main objective of this study was to develop a suitable artificial diet for mass rearing of phytoseiid predators in which Neoseiulus californicus McGregor was chosen as a phytoseiid predator to be studied in this research.
Materials and methods Predator stock culture The culture of N. Laboratory colonies of N. The edges of the arenas were covered with moist tissue paper to provide moisture and prevent predators from escaping Walzer and Schausberger, Bean leaves Phaseolus vulgaris var. Khomein infested with TSSM were added to the arena every other day.
Providing dietary supplements Pollen of maize Zea mays L.The plane used Boeing's C as reference, designed according to Federal Aviation Regulation Part 25, edition. The cabin could be configured to seat in high-density, in economy, or in mixed-class and the large flight deck accommodated five crew members: pilotco-pilotflight engineernavigatorand radio operator.
The plane was intended to serve as a demonstrator and help the Chinese industry obtain experience in large aircraft design and flight testing. The Y development costs totalled The Chinese government prided itself on the program, citing a Reuters report which said, "After developing this kind of highly complex technology, one could no longer regard China as a backward country.See how the rest of the world lives, organized by income - Anna Rosling Rönnlund
The strategic vision of an independently developed large transport plane had long been voiced by Mao Zedong and, ina similar project with updated design goals made its way into the Eleventh Five-Year Planperiodic strategic socio-economical development plans drawn up by the Chinese government.
The first prototype 01 was used for static testing, the second prototype 02 was used for flight testing and the third 03 for fatigue testing. The plane first flew on September 26,making flights with hours of flying time, visiting BeijingHarbinUrumqiZhengzhouHefeiGuangzhouKunmingLhasa and Chengdu before its retirement in The Y is an indigenous Chinese design.
While the Y resembles theits dimensions are closer to the Boeing than theand the internal design is very different.
By the time the prototype was first flown, debate about its viability surfaced, based on a design that was already 30 years old. CAAC, which already owned a modest Western fleet, would not purchase the plane. China was beginning to embrace trade with the West, and some saw the isolationist design as an inefficient throwback to Maoism. China in the early reform era was ruled by rehabilitated cadres previously persecuted in the Cultural Revolution by Wang Hongwenthe project initiator, resulting in the cancellation of the project inofficially due to cost and market concerns.
During its maiden flights, no governmental officials attended the ceremonies for fear of the connection to Wang Hongwen and the Gang of Four. Data from Chinese Aircraft:China's aviation industry since . Taylor, W. Jane's All the World's Aircraft, — London: Jane's Publishing Companypp. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Previous to this study, more than microdispid species in 17 genera have been described worldwide. In this study, a new genus, Neomicrodispus gen. Acari: Microdispidae type species Neomicrodispus iranicus sp. Also, the monotypic genus Vietodispus Mahunka, type species Vietodispus calcaratus is redescribed based on its holotype lent from the Hungarian Natural History Museum. The representatives of the family Microdispidae associated with arthropods are reviewed.
There are now 18 genera of this family worldwide that are primarily defined by reductions in their morphology. Because of poor description of some genera and species, synonymies or decreasing in systematic ranks may be expected. A review of arthropod associations, provided in this paper, showed that these mites are primarily associated with ants and beetles, where a rich source of various kinds of fungi particles is easily obtained. The cohort Heterostigmata, one of the two cohorts placed in the supercohort Eleutherengonides Acari: Prostigmata Walter et al.
They are fungivores, parasites, parasitoids, and sometimes phytophages. Heterostigmata includes eight superfamilies and more than 2, described species. Based on Khaustov [ ]the family Microdispidae Acari: Heterostigmata is a member of the superfamily Pygmephoroidea. These mites inhabit soil, litter, decaying plant materials, and similar substrates, and adult females have phoretic associations with arthropods Rack [ ]; Kaliszewski et al.
About species of 17 microdispid genera have been described; however, the taxonomy of this family is highly problematic and perplexed by vague generic and species descriptions, particularly over the last decades of the twentieth century. Here, we describe the 18th genus of this family that is associated with scarab beetles Coleoptera: Scarabaeidaecollected from forests of Golestan Province, northern Iran, and redescribe the monotypic genus Vietodispus Mahunka, [ ] because of its similarity to the new genus and incomplete original description.
In addition, the representatives of the family Microdispidae associated with arthropods are reviewed. Mites were collected from scarabaeid beetles Coleoptera: Scarabaeidaewhich were captured directly in their habitat by forceps. The mite specimens were cleared in lactophenol and mounted in Hoyer's medium. All measurements in this description are given in micrometers for the holotype and three paratypes in parentheses.
The terminology and setal notation follow Lindquist [ ]. Other paratypes as well as the beetle host are retained with the holotype.
Family: Microdispidae Cross, [ ]. Neomicrodispus iranicus gen. Gnathosomal capsule about two times longer than wide, dorsally with one pair of cheliceral setae ch 1 ; ventrally with one pair of subcapitular setae su. Palps short and compressed to gnathosomal capsule, with two pairs of setae, dFe and dGe and with small terminal claw.
Pharyngeal pump system including three pumps, second pharyngeal pump large, transversely striated, pharyngeal pumps 1 and 3 reduced. Dorsal idiosoma.
Prodorsal shield with one pair of setae sc 2one pair of capitate trichobothridia sc 1and one pair of elongate stigmata with a distinct tracheal system. Hysterosoma with four visible tergites: tergite C with two pairs of setae c 1 and c 2 ; tergite D widest tergite, with one pair of setae d and one pair of round cupuli; tergite EF with two pairs of setae e and f ; tergite H with two pairs of setae h 1 and h 2 and one pair of round cupuli.
Ventral idiosoma. Apodemes ap1 to ap4, appr, apsej, appo well-developed, ap5 absent. Setal formula of coxal fields: Setae 4 a absent.Like all ChartIQ markers, the object itself is managed by the chart, so when you scroll the chart the object moves with you. It is also destroyed automatically for you when the symbol is changed. Sign up for free newsletters and get more CNBC delivered to your inbox. Get this delivered to your inbox, and more info about our products and services.
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Data also provided by. Markets Pre-Markets U. Welcome to the new quote page. Real Time Quote Exchange. Line Break. Range Bars. Crosshair Draw Expand.
This is a callout marker Like all ChartIQ markers, the object itself is managed by the chart, so when you scroll the chart the object moves with you. This is an example of a complex marker which can contain html, video, images, css, and animations. Enter name of view: Save. Enter value and hit "Enter". Enter box size and hit "Enter" Enter reversal and hit "Enter". Use My Current Location. News Tips Got a confidential news tip? We want to hear from you. Get In Touch.Traditionally estimating pesticide effects by measuring only lethal effect may underestimate the total negative effect on beneficial arthropods and sublethal effects should be assessed to estimate the total effect of their applications.
The adult predators were exposed to the residues of the acaricide on fig leaves and the LC 50 value was determined based on a concentration—response analysis. The results showed that sublethal concentrations LC 10LC 20 and LC 30 of abamectin severely affected the fecundity and longevity of the treated females of P.
Furthermore, reproductive and life table parameters of the subsequent generation were affected. The results indicated that adverse effects of abamectin on population growth of P. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Abbott WS A method of computing effectiveness of an insecticide. J Econ Entomol — Birch LC The intrinsic rate of natural increase of an insect population. J Animal Ecol — Pest Manag Sci — Phytoprotection —8.
Science — Carey JR Applied demography for biologists. Subtrop Plant Sci — Hortsci — Croft BA Arthropod biological control agents and pesticides. John Wiley, New York. Canada Bull Environ Contam Toxicol — Biol Control — Syst Appl Acarol — Hamedi N, Fathipaur Y, Saber M Sublethal effects of fenpyroximate on life table parameters of the predatory mite Phytoseius plumifer. Biocontrol — Kim DS, Brooks DJ, Riedl R Lethal and sublethal effects of abamectin, spinosad, methoxyfenozide and acetamiprid on the predaceous plant bug Deraeocoris brevis in the laboratory.
ANPP pub, Paris, pp — Marcic D Sublethal effects of tebufenpyrad on the eggs and immatures of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae. Exp Appl Acarol —